GNSS

 Essay regarding GNSS
  • 31.08.2019
  • 822
  • GNSS

Signal Buildings for

Satellite-Based Navigation:

Earlier, Present, and Future*

Steve W. Betz

23 The spring 2013

*Approved for Public Release; Circulation Unlimited. 13-0908. The material of this materials reflect the views from the author. Not the Global Positioning Systems Directorate nor the U. H. Air Force makes any warranty or assure, or guarantee, expressed or perhaps implied, regarding the content or perhaps accuracy in the views expressed herein.

CATEGORY

Early Satnav Signal Design and style

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Project 621B Contributions to Structure of Original

GPS DEVICE Signals and Receiver Processing

 Direct sequence spread spectrum/code split multiple

gain access to

 " Clear/Acquisition” transmission

 Tips for Selective Supply (SA)

 …and differential box techniques to take away SA

 Poor crosscorrelation performance of short distributing

codes utilized for GPS C/A code transmission

 Carrier-aided code traffic monitoring

 DLL tracking problem model for wideband control of

BPSK-R signals in white noise

 6 die bahn lower monitoring threshold of coherent phase locked

cycle carrier tracking over Costas loop monitoring

 " Pseudocoherent company tracking” and data wiping

CLASSIFICATION

CATEGORY

Project 621B Contributions Not supplied in

Composition of Original GPS Signs

 Powerful error a static correction codes, both block and

convolutional

 Separate initial (" unmodulated carrier component')

and info components

 Phase-multiplexing and time-multiplexing of various

signals or perhaps components on to the same carrier

© 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All rights set aside.

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CLASSIFICATION

Satelitte Circa ten years Ago

 Two global systems: GPS and GLONASS

– Fewer than 40 total operational satellites

– Every satellite transmitted three signs, only one intended for

civil work with

 SBAS emerging; non-e fully functional

© 2012 The MITRE Corporation. Almost all rights arranged.

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CLASSIFICATION

Satnav Today

 Two operating global devices: GPS and GLONASS

– Almost 60 total operational satellites

– Newest geostationary satellites transmit five to several signals, three

for detrimental use upon different carrier frequencies

 One functioning regional program: BeiDou

 Two rising global devices: BeiDou and Galileo

 Two emerging regional systems: QZSS and IRNSS

 Three operational SBASs: WAAS, EGNOS, MSAS

 3 emerging SBASs: GAGAN, SDCM, BeiDou

Around 90 Functional Satellites

© 2012 The MITRE Company. All rights reserved.

CATEGORY

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CATEGORY

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Satelitte Circa ten years from At this point

Open: Green, Encrypted: Red

GPS: twenty seven to thirty-six SVs

GLONASS: 24 to 30 SVs

Galileo: 26 to 35 SVs

BeiDou: 35 SVs

QZSS: 3+ SVs

IRNSS: 5+ SVs

?

SBAS: 13 to 20 SVs

1160 1170 1180 1,190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300

Regularity (MHz)

CLASSIFICATION

JWBetz

1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610

CATEGORY

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Satelitte Circa a decade from Now

Open: Blue, Encrypted: Crimson

GPS: 27 to thirty-six SVs

GLONASS: 24 to 30 SVs

Galileo: 21 to 31 SVs

BeiDou: 35 SVs

QZSS: 3+ SVs

IRNSS: 5+ SVs

?

SBAS: 16 to 20 SVs

1160 1170 1180 1,190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300

Rate of recurrence (MHz)

JWBetz

1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610

More than one hundred sixty Operational Geostationary satellites

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CATEGORY

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Long term Signal Occupancy in Higher L Band: GPS,

GLONASS, SBAS, QZSS, Galileo, BeiDou Phase several

Power Unreal Density (dBW/Hz)

GPS C/A Code

QZSS C/A GPS UNIT and SAIF

Code

L1 SBAS

C/A Code

GPS NAVIGATION L1C

Galileo E1 OPERATING-SYSTEM

BeiDou B1-C

GPS

M Code

BeiDou

Galileo B1-A

PRS

GLONASS L1OF

GLONASS

L1OC

BeiDou

B1-A Galileo

PRS

GPS DEVICE

M Code

GLONASS

L1SC

1560

1565

1570

© 2012 The MITRE Organization. All legal rights reserved.

1575

1580

1585

1590

Rate of recurrence (MHz)

CLASSIFICATION

1595

1600

1605

Betz

1610

CLASSIFICATION

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Quantifying the Future Signal Occupancy in...


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